Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India

Indu Mohan et al, PLOS One

Objective

Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.

Methods

Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35–70y) were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites) for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.

Results

Mean levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p <0.001). Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and risk factors among rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women, respectively was, diabetes (2.2, 9.3, 17.7%), overweight BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (22.5, 45.6, 57.4%), waist >80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%), waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%), waist hip ratio (WHR) >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5), WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%), hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0%) and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4%) (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01). Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%). There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89–0.99).

Conclusions

There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

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